September   2017
  No.018
    
      
 
 
 
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假設語氣
 
 
英文中常用的語氣大致有三種:
1. 直陳語氣Indicative Mood (直接陳述,含感嘆句);
2. 祈使語氣Imperative Mood (命令);
3. 假設語氣Subjunctive Mood (願望、陳述應該做之事和事實不符的假定等 a wish, a mandative statement and a statement contrary to fact)。
例句如下:
直陳: I am not rich. (事實)
假設: If I were rich, I'd not stay here begging. (與現在事實相反的假設) It would be better if you had given me some money earlier. (與過去事實相反的假設)

祈使: So help me now! Don't go! Give me some money! (請求)
(如果你不了解這些基本區別﹐請見以下推薦網站。)

祈使語氣:大致中文的祈使句結構類似;除了加上結果的句型:
Make one more effort, and you will succeed.
Stop laughing at me, or you’ll regret it forever.
假設語氣:本章的重點;
1. 與事實相反的假設語氣
-- 使用的時式往前推一格;如:現在假設(與現在事實相反)用過去式﹐過去假設(與過去事實相反)用過去完成﹐未來假設(未來事實相反)用過去式 should/would/could/might或were to。
-- 使用過去式Be動詞, 不論單數、複數皆用”were” (e.g. I wish were here.)
-- 常用連接詞和介系詞: if, as if, as though, but that, but for (+ N; = Without).
2. 表達「希望」: wish, if only, would that.
3. 表示「應該」﹐使用原形動詞的動詞有:request (demand, recommend, suggest) that;
-- 片語it is (high) time, it is important(critical, urgent) be that as it may, come what may (=Whatever happens. 電影「紅磨坊」歌曲之一), if need be, whether it be.
中文說明
1) 動畫英文法有英文語氣(語態和時式、動詞狀態等)的簡介:請見
http://www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/verbs.htm
2) 假設語氣 Subjunctive Mood的說明︰請見蘇興華老師的「動感英文法」
http://www.etweb.fju.edu.tw/tracy/highschool/u_8.htm
說明︰
http://www.etweb.fju.edu.tw/tracy/highschool/handout/h_8.htm>http://www.etweb.fju.edu.tw/tracy/highschool/handout/h_8.htm
範例︰ http://www.etweb.fju.edu.tw/tracy/highschool/sample/sindex_8.htm
英文說明:
Hyper Grammar:
http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/moods.html

試題:http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/subjunctive_quiz.htm>http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/subjunctive_quiz.htm
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  提供者:陳奏賢、宋怡緻
  相關網址:http://ce.etweb.fju.edu.tw/self_learning/writing/errors.htm
 
I. 假設法 未來假設 vs. 條件 (1): were to vs. should
 
If he will tell the truth, the case will be a lot easier.

1) If he tells the truth, the case will be a lot easier. (條件:他如果說實話﹐這案子就好辦了。)

2) If he were to tell the truth, the case would be a lot easier. (不可能的假設:[他向來都說謊] 他如果說實話﹐這案子就好辦了。

3) If he should tell the truth, the case would be a lot easier. (有可能的假設:[他不太可能說實話]萬一他說了實話﹐這案子就好辦了。)
說明︰ 1. 條件句未來式﹐附屬子句不需未來式。(複習「時式:時式易混淆之句型」)
2. were to (be to 的過去式) 是假設語氣﹐表示「幾乎不可能實現」的假設。
3. should (萬一)代表有些微、萬分之一可能性。 e.g. If it should rain tomorrow, we will not go picnicking.
範例︰ If he should lose, I would feel sorry.
= Should he lose, I would feel sorry.
 
未來假設vs. 條件(2): were to vs. should
 
If the sun should rise in the west, I would marry you.
If the sun were to rise in the west, I would marry you.
如果太陽由西方升出﹐我就嫁給你。
說明︰ 同上
範例︰ If I were to wish for anything, I should not wish for wealth and power, but for the passionate sense of potential -- for the eye which, ever young and ardent, sees the possible. Pleasure disappoints; possibility never. --Søren Kierkegaard
如果我會有任何冀求﹐我不會求能獲得財富或權力﹐而會求能熱情感受潛力﹐求有永遠年輕和熱切的眼睛﹐看到可能性。愉悅使人失望﹐但可能性決不會。
 
過去假設(1):完成式不定詞
 
I would have cried to hear the news.

I would have cried to have heard the news.

要是我聽到了這個消息,我會哭。
說明︰ 1. 假設法的子句可以由不定詞來代替。完成式不定詞表示與過去事實相反的假設。
2. 以上句子也可寫成: If I had heard the news, I would have cried. Had I heard the news, I would have cried.
範例︰ If you had baked them longer, you would have produced a batch of perfect cookies. If I had only known, I would have been a locksmith.—Albert Einstein
(如我早知道﹐我就當鎖匠了。[暗示他希望自己的工作是較單純的﹐而不是發展相對論、造成原子彈發明的學者])
More
 
過去假設 (2) :與過去也與現在事實相反 (簡單式)
 
If I had taken medicine yesterday, I would have felt better now.
If I had taken medicine yesterday, I would feel better now.
說明︰ 1. 第一個子句與過去事實相反,第二個字句與現在事實相反。If + S. + had + p.p. …, S. + 助動詞(過去式) + 原形動詞
2. 兩句均與過去事實相反 If + S. + V. (過去式)…, S. + 助動詞(過去式) + have + p.p. …
範例︰ If it had not been for the pleadings of my granddaughter, you would be dead already.
= But for (=Without) the pleadings of my granddaughter . . .
= Had it not been for the pleadings of my granddaughter . . .
= But that my granddaughter pleaded for you, you would be dead already.
例二:If I were dropped out of a plane into the ocean and told the nearest land was a thousand miles away, I'd still swim. And I'd despise the one who gave up.—Abraham Maslow
 
現在假設:也有進行式!
 
We can hardly hear the teacher when she is not using her microphone.  We don’t blame her; she would use it all the time were the mic not broken. 
We can hardly hear the teacher when she is not using her microphone.  We don’t blame her; she would be using it all the time were the mic not broken.  
說明︰ 假設句的子句中的動作正在或持續進行,必須要用進行式
範例︰ You were taking a shower, so I didn’t ask you to answer the phone. But if you had not been taking a shower, I would have asked you to answer the phone.
 
假設語氣常用連接詞:as if/as though vs. as and like
 
The child talked as if he was abused by his mother, but it was all in his imagination.
The child talked as if he had been abused by his mother, but it was all in his imagination.
說明︰ As if/as though 有兩含意﹐區別在於發生的可能性
1) 看起來)好像(有可能發生)-- He looks as if/though he hasn't slept all night.
2) 好似(與現實相反)﹐用假設語氣 – He lives his life as though there were no tomorrow. (事實上有tomorrow); He lives his life as though there is no tomorrow. (有可能沒有tomorrow)
-- as though/as if 後可加直陳句或假設語氣﹐但語氣和含意則不同。以上錯誤範例句如果沒有附屬子句(but it was all in his imagination) 就沒有錯﹐只是含意不同。
(看起來)像:可用As if/as though + 子句, as + 子句;like + 名詞。但是在口語英文中 like比較常用﹐甚至接子句. 如:
-- He looks like he hasn't slept all night.
-- When he sees something he wants, he spends money like it’s going out of style.
(他一看到喜歡的東西﹐花錢就好像有像人生僅此一次;
“like it’s going out of style” = doing something very enthusiastically and keenly, as if he may not get another chance to do it.)
範例︰ -- [過去假設] Jeffery looks as if (= as though) he had attended the meeting yesterday. [But he actually didn’t.]
-- [現在假設] Treat all disasters as if they were trivialities but never treat a triviality as if it were a disaster. Quentin Crisp
視所有災難為瑣事﹐卻不要視任何瑣事為災難。(大事化小﹐不要小事化大)
 
II. 表示願望:wish 等
 
I wish the rain will stop soon.

I wish the rain would stop soon.

希望雨很快就停下來。
說明︰ 1.Wish表示願望的假設法:
-- 過去:I wish we had known about global warming earlier.
-- 現在:以上例子
-- 未來:I wish I could meet my aunt tomorrow. (=I am sorry that I cannot meet my aunt tomorrow.)
2. Wish 表示祝福:May you have a fruitful year to come!
=I wish you a fruitful year to come! (祝你有個充實的一年!)
3. If only (要是…就好了) Would that (真希望) 也是表達願望。
e.g. This [“Take it easy”] would be wise advice, if only the job were done and it were time to relax. If only that were true! But challenges abound, and this is no time to take the future for granted.
範例︰ I wish people would love everybody else the way they love me. It would be a better world. --Muhammad Ali
我希望人們能像愛我一樣彼此相愛。這樣世界會更好。
If only I were a man for one short hour. From the movie, Ivanhoe (1952)
 
III.命令、建議 (1): 動詞 demand + that S. (should) + 原形動詞
 
He demanded that he was admitted.
He demanded that he (should) be admitted.
說明︰ 1. suggest, demand, order, require, insist + that子句:表達對未來的要求。
2. 公式: demand + that S. (should) + 原形動詞
3. that不可省略,should 可省和可不省。
範例︰ -- He was a conservationist, and a man who advocated that national parks be spread all across the county.
-- I demand that my books be judged with utmost severity, by knowledgeable people who know the rules of grammar and of logic, and who will seek beneath the footsteps of my commas the lice of my thought in the head of my style. --Louis Aragon (1897–1982)
我要求我的書被嚴格評斷;評斷者博學﹐了解文法與邏輯規則﹐會由我的逗點腳步下尋找我的文體頭上的思考頭蝨。(意即:由字句結構推敲,以了解思考如何密佈於文體上)
 
命令、建議 (2): 連接詞 (should) + 原形動詞
 
Do this now, lest you are harried later.
Do this now, lest you be harried later.現在做﹐免得以後被煩擾。
說明︰ 1. lest (= for fear that) 子句使用原形動詞是因為之前有可省的should.
2. 其他類似子句:whether it/they be (be it/they), if need be (= if necessary)
3. be that as it may (無論如何):He certainly was under pressure at the time. Be that as it may, he was still wrong to react in the way that he did.
範例︰ -- She tiptoed lest the guard should hear her. She is anxious lest he become ill.
-- All humans are created equal, be they black or white, straight or gay, ...
-- The ability to find loopholes in a system, be they mathematical, systematical, or procedural, is vital to a cryptographer.
解密碼者最需要的能力是能夠發現系統的漏洞﹐數學的、系統的或程序上的漏洞。
 

作文有問題嗎?請到自學網問小老師!!!

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jokes and Riddles
Yogi-isms 洋基棒球明星Yogi Berra名言錄
'Yogi Berra' (Lawrence Peter Berra) 是1940-1950 之間洋基隊的捕手。他的語言技巧遠不如他的接球技術,常以使用矛盾(oxymoron)、重複語詞(tautology)或無意義的話而貽笑大方。
請見以下幾個例子,是好笑呢?還是可以有些哲理?
1. A nickel ain't worth a dime anymore.
2. The future ain't what it used to be. [1]
3. We have a good time together, even when we're not together. [2]
4. Never answer an anonymous letter.
5. Always go to other people's funerals; otherwise, they won't go to yours.[3]
6. You have to give 100% in the first half of the game. If that isn't enough, in the second half, you have to give what is left. [4]
7. At a dinner in an Italian restaurant, he was asked how many slices should be cut in his pizza, and he replied: 'You better make it four; I don't think I could eat eight'. [5]
8. If I didn't wake up I'd still be sleeping.
9. Mr Bush made a bit of a Yogi-ism himself in saying 'I am shocked to discover that over 90% of our imports come from outside America!'. [6]
說明:
Explanation:
[1] 1, 2都有用成語(isn’t worth a dime毫不值錢; ain’t what it used to be今非昔比)的格言,可是加了Yogi的主詞就不合理,因為比較的兩者本來就不一樣。Nickel:五分(5 cents), dime: 一毛 (10 cents or pennies)。現在的Future 本來就和過去的future不一樣。
[2] 3. interesting oxymoron (矛盾用法)
[3] 4, 5. 怎麼可能?回匿名(anonymous)信? 或期待已過世者參加葬禮。
[4] 6. to give what is left of me: 有傾力而為之意,可是之前Yogi 已經盡100%的力,所以剩下就是零。
[5] 7. Pizza 切幾片總量都是一樣。
[6] 8-9 重複用法(tautology).
 
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