August   2020
  No.012
    
      
 
 
 
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用字 Usage-動詞用法
 
 
自學報在介紹過中式英文、句子結構後,回到更基本的單元-字詞(選字、用法、冠詞、詞性、單複數、介系詞等),本期介紹「用法」。

選字(word choice)和用字(usage)在英文文法和修辭上是不可分的兩個環節。上一個單元我們談到『選字』在文字脈絡組合(collocation)、字辨和修辭上常犯的錯誤,其實也和『用字』相關。

本單元我們重點為:

動詞用法的常見錯誤-

(1) 及物與不及物動詞—及物動詞(transitive verb)一定要加直接受詞意義才完全;不及物動詞(intransitive verb)不能直接加受詞,要加介系詞和受詞。哪些動詞可以直接接受詞,哪些要加介系詞? 查字典時,要查動詞是T, v tr (及物) or I, v intr (不及物)。註:有些動詞既是及物又是不及物。

(2) 動詞 + 不定詞 (infinitive) 或 動名詞(gerund)

(3) 其他:動詞 + 介系詞的不同含意﹔think 的否定寫法

參考網站:(不限於動詞用法)

基礎:英文動畫文法 (含動詞種類介紹) http://www.csjh.ttct.edu.tw/%E5%8B%95%E7%95%AB%E6%96%87%E6%B3%95.htm

進階:動名詞與不定詞http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/gerunds.htm

Common Errors in English (以字母順序排,含易混淆動詞) http://wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.htm

22
  提供者:陳奏賢、宋怡緻
  相關網址:http://ce.etweb.fju.edu.tw/self_learning/writing/errors.htm
 
(1) Discuss 不要加 about!
 
This book discusses about the effects of global warming.
This book discusses the effects of global warming.
說明︰ Discuss 是及物動詞,所以不可以加 about.
範例︰ 1. My therapist([心理]治療師)discussed my concerns with my parents.
2. Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people. -- Eleanor Roosevelt (1884 - 1962)
 
(1) Emphasize 不要加 on!
 
Professor Koss emphasized on punctuality in his class.
Professor Koss emphasized punctuality in his class.
說明︰ 1. Emphasize 是及物動詞,後面直接加受詞。
2. 也可用 put emphasis on 或 put stress on …
範例︰ A true friend knows your weaknesses but shows you your strengths; feels your fears but fortifies (加強) your faith; sees your anxieties but frees your spirit; recognizes your disabilities but emphasizes your possibilities.
-- William Arthur Ward
 
(1) 「抵達」Arrive + at (不及物);Reach + O. (及物)
 
My flight will reach at London at 9:00 am.
我的班機會在早上九點抵達倫敦。
My flight will reach London at 9:00 am.
說明︰ 1. arrive 和reach 都表示「抵達」的意思:reach及物動詞,不需要加介系詞;arrive不及物動詞,如果要接受詞一定要加介系詞 (at or in)。
2. 註:reach 當不及物動詞的意思是「伸手(以接觸 sb 或拿 sth)」。如片語reach out to (主動了解、接觸 sb); reach for (the star, the top)
範例︰ 1. Each friend represents a world in us, a world possibly not born until they arrive. -- Anaïs Nin (每個朋友在我們心中是一個世界,這個世界要等他/她們到了,才會產生。)
2. If all economists were laid end to end, they would not reach a conclusion. -- George Bernard Shaw
(如果把所有經濟學家頭尾相接,他們也不會做出結論的。)
More
 
(1) Accompany 及物 = go/come with
 
An American Dream usually accompanies with disappointment but many people never give up on it.
An American Dream is usually accompanied by disappointment but many people never give up on it.
說明︰ Accompany 表示「伴隨、陪伴、陪同、伴奏」的意思時,是及物動詞,所以直接加受詞就可以,或用被動 be accompanied with/by.
範例︰ 1. The bodyguard accompanied her everywhere to protect her against being harassed by the fans.
2. The smoked salmon is usually accompanied by (served with) apple, dill and celery salad.
 
(1) Prevent sb from Ving sth
 
The government took steps to prevent from the strike.
1. The government took steps to prevent the strike.
2. The government took steps to prevent the workers from going on strike.
說明︰ 1. Prevent 是及物動詞,所以要直接加受詞 (sb or sth);或是 prevent sb from Ving.
2. 不及物用法:I will go to the movies if nothing prevents.
範例︰ You cannot simultaneously (同時) prevent and prepare for war.
-- Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955).
 
(2) 動名詞或不定詞 Avoid + Ving (gerund)
 
Can we find any way to avoid our skin to age prematurely?
Can we find any way to avoid our skin aging prematurely?
說明︰ 1. Avoid 加動名詞或名詞。
2. 其他加動名詞的動詞有:go shopping/picnicking (其他:http://www.ep66.com.tw/go.htm ); enjoy, mind, resist, delay, suggest, postpone, insist on, be used to, with a view to. (其他:http://www.ep66.com.tw/v%20gerund.htm)
範例︰ I try to avoid looking backward and keep looking upward.
-- Charlotte Bronte (1816 - 1855)
 
(2) prefer +Ving (N) + to Ving (N); prefer + to V. + rather than + 原形 V
 
On such a cold day, I prefer going out than staying at home.
On such a cold day, I prefer going out to staying at home.
說明︰ 1. Prefer + V-ing1 to V-ing2 寧願 V-ing1,也不要(願) V-ing2
2. 這個用法的 to 是介系詞,所以後面的動詞 (V2) 要改成動名詞
3. 也可寫成 prefer to + 原形V rather than + 原形V
範例︰ I prefer tongue-tied knowledge to ignorant loquacity.
-- Cicero (106 BC - 43 BC)
我喜歡謹慎結舌的知識,而不喜歡無知的口若懸河。
 
(2) Spend (time) + Ving
 
I spent much of my college life to explore the field of linguistics, and found I really liked it.
I spent much of my college life exploring the field of linguistics, and found I really liked it.
說明︰ 1. spend 後面接的動作要用動名詞,因為省略了介係詞 in ;
2. 介系詞後面如果要接動詞,要把它改成動名詞;
3. 用法:人+ spend + 時間/金錢 + (in) + V-ing / on + 名詞
範例︰ 1. My father is not willing to spend too much money on a new car he is planning to buy.
2. Lose an hour in the morning, and you will spend all day looking for it.
-- Richard Whately
 
(2) stop + V-ing / stop + to V 意義不同
 
I can't stop to eat because I am so hungry.
I can't stop eating because I am so hungry.
說明︰ 1. stop + V-ing 表達的是停止 V-ing 這個動作﹔
2. stop + to V 表達的是停下來,去做 V 這個動作﹔
3. 補充:forget + V-ing 表示忘記做過什麼事﹔
forget + to V 表示忘記去做V這個動作﹔
4. 同理,remember + Ving 表示記得做過什麼事 (已做了)﹔
remember + to V 表示記得要去做 V 這個動作 (未做)。
範例︰ While we stop to think, we often miss our opportunity.
-- Publilius Syrus (~100 BC)
 
(3) 動詞+介系詞 hear of/hear from/hear about
 
My sister still hasn't heard from the car accident, because my mother didn't want her to know.
我的妹妹還不知道這個交通意外,因為我媽媽不想讓她知道。
My sister still hasn't heard about the car accident, because my mother didn't want her to know.
說明︰ 1. hear from 表示收到…的信
2. hear about 表示聽到…消息,聽說…
hear about = hear the current news/story/gossip concerning.
3. heard of = am aware of ; I'd never heard of that jazz singer before, but she was very good. (否定:容許) She wouldn't hear of their paying their own way.
4. 註(1):hear 感官動詞 + Ving or 原形 V.
5. 註(2):動詞接不同介系詞意義不同的例子很多﹔如care for (喜歡) care about (在乎)和take care of (照顧)都不同。
範例︰ As soon as I hear from him, I will let you know.
我一收到他的信,我就會讓你知道。
 
(3) Think/Hope 的否定形式
 
1. I don't hope you will go there. 我希望你不會去那裡。
2. I think you will not make it. 我想你不會成功。
1. I hope you won't go there.
2. I don't think you can make it.
說明︰ 否定句中, not 不可以放在 hope 之前。但是如果動詞是 think, believe, imagine, suppose, expect 時,則 not 要放在動詞之前。
範例︰ 1. The party yesterday went like clockwork; I don't think you could have organized it better.
2. I hope the leaving (意指死亡) is joyful, and I hope never to return.
-- Frida Kahlo
 

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Jokes and Riddles
New Years Resolutions for Internet Junkies
12. I will read the manual... just as soon as I can find it.
11. I will think of a password other than "password."
10. I will try to figure out why I "really" need 12 e-mail addresses.
9. I will stop sending e-mail to my wife (husband). A phone call every now and then would be appreciated.
8. I resolve to work with neglected children -- my own.
7. I will answer my snail mail with the same enthusiasm with which I answer my e-mail.
6. I will stop sending e-mail, ICQ, Instant Messages and be on the phone at the same time with the same person.
5. I resolve to back up my 12GB hard drive daily...well, once a week...okay, monthly then...or maybe... at least once a year.
4. I will spend less than one hour a day on the Internet - This, of course, will be hard to estimate since I'm not a clock watcher.
3. I will stop checking my e-mail at 3:00 in the morning... 4:30 is much more practical since my friends overseas already had time to answer me by then.
2. When I hear a funny joke, I will not reply, "LOL... LOL!"
1. I resolve... I resolve to... I resolve to, uh... I resolve to, uh, get my, er... I resolve to, uh, get my, er, off-line work done, too!
說明:
source
Internet Junkie (網路迷); TV junkie, Sports junkie, or drug addict.
7. snail mail = regular postal mail (蝸牛郵件); with enthusiasm 熱忱
 
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